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Some general aspects on Defect Induced Magnetism in Solids: experimental difficulties and theoretical hints
The influence of defects, like vacancies and non-magnetic ions can trigger magnetic order at room temperature in nominally non-magnetic materials. This phenomenon is observed nowadays in a number ofvery different materials, like graphite, SiC and several oxides without magnetic ions. I will restrict my talk to discuss the following issues: Difficulties and recent advances in triggering experimentally a homogeneous magnetically ordered state, the problem of magnetic (hidden) impurities, and what certain experimental methods are pointing out regarding the strength of this phenomenon. I will discuss new experimental results obtained from magnetization, magnetoresistance, magneto-photoconductivity, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on oxides and graphite. All this plus theoretical results indicate that defect induced magnetism is not a “weak” phenomenon but the contrary, probably the strongest magnetic order phenomenon in solids.